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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #100 on: March 05, 2011, 11:12:25 AM »
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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #101 on: April 09, 2011, 01:55:53 PM »
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12990213
8 April 2011 Last updated at 13:13 ET
Kepler star trio find is mystery to astroseismologists

Binary stars are well-known, but it seems these trinary systems may also be common
Quote
Most stars are known to generate great booming sounds in their interiors, and Kepler can spot the resulting change in the light that they emit.

However, astronomers reporting in Science say a red giant they have spotted is unexpectedly quiet.

HD181068A is orbited by two smaller, red dwarf stars that orbit each other.

The study of the sounds within stars is known as astroseismology, and a separate report in Science details the findings of more than 500 stars whose deep rumblings Kepler has measured.

As convection processes within stars move masses of material up from the core, great pressure waves - in essence, sound waves of very low frequency - are created.

As the gases are compressed and rarefied, temperature changes lead to changes in the light that escapes the stars.

The sounds within the stars, and the clues they give into the stars' makeup, can be inferred from these small changes in the "light curves" that telescopes such as Kepler measure.

Triple play
 
But HD181068 is an unusual case - firstly because it is a "triply eclipsing" system. From Kepler's viewpoint, the two smaller binary stars pass in front of one another as they orbit each other, and they in turn pass in front of the red giant.

Just what is going on in the system can be worked out from measuring the tiny amounts of light that are blocked by each star at each stage of the trio's waltz.

It is not the first triply eclipsing system that Kepler has spotted; that honour goes to KOI 126, also reported in Science, in February.


But the red giant's silence has confounded the new study's lead author Aliz Derekas, of Eotvos University in Hungary.

"This red giant star should pulsate," she told BBC News.

"We now know all red giants show some oscillations - the surface of the star should show some waves that should be in the light curve. We can estimate the period of these oscillations, and this red giant doesn't show that period."

The best guess for the moment is that the gravitational forces at work between the three stars could serve to dampen the oscillations at HD181068's surface.

That is because the two smaller stars orbit each other in 0.9 days, whereas the expected period of oscillations from the red giant's rumblings is almost exactly half that.

It may be that the binary pair stops the oscillations on the red giant by tugging on the star's surface at just the right times.

Mike Montgomery, an astronomer at the University of Texas at Austin, said another force may be at work.

"When you have stars in a binary or triple system, and one of them burns all its hydrogen and becomes a red giant, if it's close enough it can start to dump some of its material onto that other star," he explained to BBC News.

"This is just circumstantial evidence, but maybe its internal structure isn't what it would have been if it were a single star, and that's somehow affecting its ability to pulsate."

Either way, Kepler's prolific rate of discovery means that further examples of systems of this sort may be just around the corner.

Dr Montgomery said: "These things are not as uncommon as you might think. We'll probably discover more of these systems and we'll be able in a couple of years to be sure about this sort of diagnosis."
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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #102 on: April 16, 2011, 09:52:16 AM »
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2011-116
Do Cosmic Strings of Gas Come From Sonic Booms?


Dense filaments of gas in the IC5146 interstellar cloud can be seen clearly in this image taken in infrared light by the Herschel space observatory. Stars are forming along these filaments. The blue region is a stellar nursery known as the Cocoon nebula. This image was taken by ESA’s Herschel space observatory at infrared wavelengths of 70, 250 and 500 microns. Image credits: ESA/Herschel/SPIRE/PACS/D. Arzoumanian (CEA Saclay)

Quote
April 13, 2011

The Herschel Space Observatory has revealed that clouds between stars contain networks of tangled gaseous filaments. Intriguingly, each filament is approximately the same width, hinting that they may result from interstellar sonic booms throughout our Milky Way galaxy.

The filaments are huge, stretching for tens of light years through space, and Herschel has shown that newborn stars are often found in the densest parts of them. One filament imaged by Herschel in the Aquila region contains a cluster of about 100 infant stars.

Such filaments in interstellar clouds have been glimpsed before by other infrared satellites, but they have never been seen clearly enough to have their widths measured. Now, Herschel has shown that, regardless of the length or density of a filament, the width is always roughly the same.

The team suggests that as sonic booms from exploding stars travel through the clouds, they lose energy and, where they finally dissipate, they leave these filaments of compressed material.

Read the full story from the European Space Agency at: http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Herschel/SEMK0H7S9MG_0.html .

Herschel is a European Space Agency cornerstone mission, with science instruments provided by consortia of European institutes and with important participation by NASA. NASA's Herschel Project Office is based at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. JPL contributed mission-enabling technology for two of Herschel's three science instruments. The NASA Herschel Science Center, part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, supports the United States astronomical community. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

More information is online at http://www.herschel.caltech.edu, http://www.nasa.gov/herschel and http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Herschel/index.html .


Whitney Clavin (818) 354-4673
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
whitney.clavin@jpl.nasa.gov

2011-116
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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #103 on: April 24, 2011, 05:11:01 PM »
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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #104 on: June 07, 2011, 07:25:16 AM »
http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110603/full/news.2011.346.html

Moving mirrors make light from nothing
Researchers claim to have produced sought-after quantum effect.

Geoff Brumfiel


A moving mirror can generate light from a vacuum.
Phil M Rogers / Alamy

A team of physicists is claiming to have coaxed sparks from the vacuum of empty space1. If verified, the finding would be one of the most unusual experimental proofs of quantum mechanics in recent years and "a significant milestone", says John Pendry, a theoretical physicist at Imperial College London who was not involved in the study.

The researchers, based at the Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, will present their findings early next week at a workshop in Padua, Italy. They have already posted a paper on the popular pre-print server arXiv.org, but have declined to talk to reporters because the work has not yet been peer-reviewed. High-profile journals, including Nature, discourage researchers from talking to the press until their findings are ready for publication.

Nevertheless, scientists not directly connected with the group say that the result is impressive. "It is a major development," says Federico Capasso, an experimental physicist at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who has worked on similar quantum effects.

At the heart of the experiment is one of the weirdest, and most important, tenets of quantum mechanics: the principle that empty space is anything but. Quantum theory predicts that a vacuum is actually a writhing foam of particles flitting in and out of existence.

The existence of these particles is so fleeting that they are often described as virtual, yet they can have tangible effects. For example, if two mirrors are placed extremely close together, the kinds of virtual light particles, or photons, that can exist between them can be limited. The limit means that more virtual photons exist outside the mirrors than between them, creating a force that pushes the plates together. This 'Casimir force' is strong enough at short distances for scientists to physically measure it.

From virtual to real
For decades, theorists have predicted that a similar effect can be produced in a single mirror that is moving very quickly. According to theory, a mirror can absorb energy from virtual photons onto its surface and then re-emit that energy as real photons. The effect only works when the mirror is moving through a vacuum at nearly the speed of light — which is almost impossible for everyday mechanical devices.

Per Delsing, a physicist at the Chalmers University of Technology, and his colleagues circumvented this problem using a piece of quantum electronics known as a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), which is extraordinarily sensitive to magnetic fields.

 The team fashioned a superconducting circuit in which the SQUID effectively acted as a mirror. Passing a magnetic field through the SQUID moved the mirror slightly, and switching the direction of magnetic field several billion times per second caused it to 'wiggle' at around 5% the speed of light, a speed great enough to see the effect.

The result was a shower of microwave photons shaken loose from the vacuum, the team claims. The group's analysis shows that the frequency of the photons was roughly half the frequency at which they wiggled the mirror — as was predicted by quantum theory.

Capasso calls the experiment "very clever". He doubts that the effect has any practical use because it doesn't generate large numbers of photons, but he considers it a nice demonstration of quantum mechanics. He still hopes to see a moving piece of metal generate detectable light from the vacuum, and believes that micromechanical systems may eventually be able to reach such speeds.

Pendry says that the result, if it stands up, is bound to generate excitement. "Work in this area stirs considerable passion in the breasts of physicists."

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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #105 on: June 29, 2011, 04:41:25 PM »
http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/ ... atter-sun/

Quote

Dark Matter May Be Building Up Inside the Sun
By Lisa Grossman  July 9, 2010  |  1:48 pm  |  Categories: Physics, Space

The sun could be a net for dark matter, a new study suggests. If dark matter happens to take a certain specific form, it could build up in our nearest star and alter how heat moves inside it in a way that would be observable from Earth.

Dark matter is the mysterious stuff that makes up about 83 percent of the matter in the universe, but doesn’t interact with electromagnetic forces. Although the universe contains five times as much dark matter as normal matter, dark matter is completely invisible both to human eyes and every kind of telescope ever devised. Physicists only know it’s there because of its gravitational effect on normal matter. Dark matter keeps galaxies spinning quickly without flying apart and is responsible for much of the large-scale structure in the universe.

Current dark matter detectors are looking for WIMPs, or weakly interacting massive particles, that connect only with the weak nuclear force and gravity. Based on the most widely accepted theories, most experiments are tuned to look for a particle that is about 100 times more massive than a proton. The chief suspect is also its own antiparticle: Whenever a WIMP meets another WIMP, they annihilate each other.

“This is something that has always worried me,” said astroparticle physicist Subir Sarkar of the University of Oxford. If equal amounts of matter and antimatter were created in the big bang, the particles should have completely wiped each other out by now. “Obviously that did not happen, we are here to prove it,” he said. “So something created an asymmetry of matter over antimatter,” letting a little bit of matter survive after all the antimatter was gone.


Whatever made regular matter beat out regular antimatter could have worked on dark matter as well, Sarkar suggests. If dark matter evolved similarly to regular matter, it would have to be much lighter than current experiments expect, only about 5 times the mass of a proton. That’s a suggestive number, Sarkar says.

“If it were five times heavier, it would get five times the abundance. That’s what dark matter is,” he said. “That’s the simplest explanation for dark matter in my view.”

The trouble is, these light particles are much more difficult to detect with current experiments. In a paper in the July 2 Physical Review Letters, Sarkar and Oxford colleague Mads Frandsen suggest another way to find light dark matter: Look to the sun.

Because lightweight dark matter particles wouldn’t vaporize each other when they meet, the sun should collect the particles the way snowballs collect more snow.

“The sun has been whizzing around the galaxy for 5 billion years, sweeping up all the dark matter as it goes,” Sarkar said.

The buildup of dark matter could solve a pressing problem in solar physics, called the solar composition problem. Sensitive observations of waves on the sun’s surface have revealed that the sun has a much easier time transporting heat from its interior to its surface than standard models predict it should.

Dark matter particles that interact only with each other could make up the difference. Photons and particles of regular matter bounce off each other on their way from the sun’s interior to its surface, so light and heat can take billions of years to escape. But because dark matter particles ignore all the regular matter inside the sun, they have less stuff in their way and can transport heat more efficiently.

“When we do the calculation, to our amazement, it turns out this is true,” Sarkar said. “They can transport enough heat to solve the solar composition problem.”

Next, Sarkar and Frandsen calculated how being full of dark matter would affect the number of neutrinos the sun gives off. They found that the neutrino flux would change by a few percent. That’s not much, Sarkar said, but it’s just enough to be detected by two different neutrino experiments — one in Italy called Borexino and one in Canada called SNO+ — that are soon to get under way.

“It’s a speculative idea, but it’s testable,” Sarkar said. “And the tools to test it are coming on line pretty fast. We don’t have to wait 20 years.”

The idea of lightweight dark matter influencing the sun is “not too much of a stretch, in my opinion,” said physicist Dan Hooper of Fermilab in Illinois. “I look at their numbers, and they’re very plausible to me.”

Some puzzling results from dark matter detectors hint that these lightweight particles could have already been detected. Earlier this year, a germanium hockey puck in a mine in Minnesota called the Coherent Germanium Neutrino Technology (CoGeNT) detected a signal from a particle about 7 times the mass of the proton, though they’re not sure yet whether it’s dark matter. Another detector in Italy called DAMA has reported similar results.

“There’s an increasingly compelling body of evidence accumulating” that dark matter is just a few times as massive as a proton, Hooper said. “The jury is still out, but if this is really what’s going on, we should be able to know it with some confidence in the next year or so.”

Update: Regular matter makes up 5 percent of the energy density of the universe, and dark matter makes up 25 percent (five times more than regular matter). The remaining 70 percent is dark energy.

Image: NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory



Read More http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/ ... z0tVMwbmJL
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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #106 on: June 29, 2011, 04:49:38 PM »
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13940929
29 June 2011 Last updated at 06:40 ET
Dark matter may solve 'radio filaments' mysteryBy Jason Palmer
Science and technology reporter, BBC News

The filaments can be seen as radio emission radiating away from the galactic centre

Unexplained "filaments" of radio-wave emission close to our galaxy's centre may hold proof of the existence of dark matter, researchers have said.

Dark matter is believed to make up most of the mass of our Universe, but it has yet to be definitively spotted.

A report now suggests the filaments' emission arises from dark matter particles crashing into each other.

However, the work, posted to the Arxiv repository, requires extensive further experiments to support or refute it.

The filaments have been something of a mystery to astronomers since they were first discovered in the 1980s.

They are known to be regions of high magnetic fields, and they emit radio waves of high frequency - some of them with striking intensity.

"There's a long literature about these objects, and there have been some ideas as to what might generate their emission - but frankly no one really knows," said Dan Hooper, an astrophysicist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in the US and co-author of the paper, which is still under review by academics.

One explanation for this emission would be what is called synchrotron radiation, which arises when charged particles are accelerated in a magnetic field. There are several ideas that could account for the emission which do not invoke dark matter - so called "astrophysical" mechanisms.

'Natural explanation'
 
Now, Dan Hooper and his colleagues suggest that electrons - created when high-energy dark matter particles smash into each other - could be the what gives rise to the synchrotron radiation detected here on Earth.

He credits co-author Tim Linden for coming up with the idea, which he said "can explain a lot of the different features that are observed" in the filaments' emission - something he said more prosaic "astrophysical" explanations could not claim.

"One thing it explains that the astrophysical possibilities don't is that the filaments that are closer to the galactic centre are brighter than those that are farther away," Dr Hooper told BBC News. "We would say that's because there's more dark matter as you come closer to the galactic centre - it provides a natural explanation for that."
 
In the model that the team has developed, the electrons in all the filaments that were studied should have a high energy - between five and 10 billion electron volts (GeV).

Dr Hooper said:"The question is: why would all of these filaments which are different astrophysically, contain different stuff, located in different places - all sorts of different properties - all have electrons with that much energy?

"In the dark matter explanation, that's easy - dark matter is the same everywhere."

'Severe conflict'
 
Dr Hooper has also published papers recently suggesting that dark matter particles of the same energies fit with recent results from the Fermi space telescope (in an article in Physics Letters B) and with efforts to detect dark matter on Earth in so-called "direct detection" experiments (in an as-yet unpublished paper on Arxiv).

"That's definitely one of the strengths of this model; the results seem promising," said Sukanya Chakrabarti, an astrophysicist from the University of California, Berkeley.

However, theoretical models of a substance that has never been detected necessarily require a number of educated guesses and estimates - guesses that could radically affect whether or not a given theory stands up.

"When you do these kind of 'indirect detection' experiments, there are many parameters that go into your model," Dr Chakrabarti told BBC News. "All that stuff that's not known - it's hard to do a study of all these and convince yourself of all mechanisms [that lead to the emission]."

Troy Porter, an astrophysicist from Stanford University, said that dark matter particles of energies as high as 10 GeV are "already in severe conflict with the recent [preliminary and as-yet unpublished] results reported by the Fermi-LAT collaboration at the Rome Fermi symposium for an analysis of nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies".

The results from detections in underground experiments on Earth are also not widely agreed to point to a dark matter explanation, but Dr Hooper said forthcoming results from the Cresst experiment in Italy will lend further credence to his team's theory.

What will resolve these issues in the case of the filaments are simply more observations using more radio telescopes.

"Many of these filaments have only limited data available about them," said Dr Hooper. "I hope this paper inspires radio astronomers to look more carefully at these objects."



What is an electron volt?
 
Charged particles tend to speed up in an electric field, defined as an electric potential - or voltage - spread over a distance
One electron volt (eV) is the energy gained by a single electron as it accelerates through a potential of one volt
It is the unit of choice for particle physics in astronomy and here on Earth
As such, it is used for particle accelerators, which speed particles up through very high electric potentials
The Large Hadron Collider, for example, can reach beam energies up to several trillion eV, or teraelectronvolts (TeV)

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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #107 on: August 04, 2011, 03:09:04 PM »

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/44006008/ns/technology_and_science-space/
96 new star clusters found hiding in the cosmic dust

Many stars form in giant groups known as open clusters, which are crucial for the galaxy's development. There should be about 30,000 clusters in the Milky Way, but we've only ever found 2,500. Now, you can raise that number to 2,596.
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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #108 on: October 09, 2011, 07:30:11 PM »
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9oSePXRbW9o
The Miracle of 528 Hz Solfeggio and Fibonacci numbers
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« Reply #109 on: November 17, 2011, 11:48:12 PM »
http://www.near-death.com/experiences/cayce03.html


Edgar Cayce revealed volumes of psychic material, much of which was verified to be true to the amazement of doctors and scientists. Cayce discovered at a young age that he could go into hypnosis and travel to other realms to obtain psychic information on any subject. He claimed that anyone could do what he did with the proper training and attunement. He would go into a hypnotic trance that would induce a near-death experience. During his near-death experiences he was able to tap into a virtually unlimited amount of information which he referred to as the "Universal Mind". He was able to reveal previously unknown information on a wide range of subjects such as: astrology, the afterlife, religion, the future, consciousness, and human origins, just to name a few. The following information on human origins was revealed to Cayce during his excursions while out of the body and as told in Thomas Sugrue's book, There is a River. Because of the archaic language used in Cayce's description, I have paraphrased it slightly, without losing any of original meaning, to make it easier to read
Quote
People usually demand a beginning, so in the beginning there was a sea of spirit and it filled all of space. The spirit was static, content, and aware of itself. It was a giant resting on the bosom of its thought and contemplating what it is.

Then the spirit moved into action. It withdrew into itself until all of space was empty. In the center, the restless mind of the spirit shone. This was the beginning of the individuality of the spirit. This was what the spirit discovered itself to be when it awakened. This spirit was God.

God desired self-expression and desired companionship; therefore, God projected the cosmos and souls. The cosmos was built with music, arithmetic, geometry, harmony, system, and balance. The building blocks were all of the same material - the life essence. It was the power of God that changed the length of its wave and the rate of its vibration which created the patterns for multitudes of forms. This action resulted in the law of diversity which supplied endless patterns. God played on this law of diversity as a pianist plays on a piano - producing melodies and arranging them in a symphony.

Each design carried within it the plan for its evolution. This plan corresponds to the sound of a note struck on a piano. The sounds of several notes unite to make a chord; chords in turn become phrases; phrases become melodies; melodies intermingle and move back and forth, across and between and around each other, to make a symphony. Then in the end, the music will stop and the physical universe will be no more; but between the beginning and the finish of the music there was glorious beauty and a glorious experience. The spiritual universe will continue.

Everything assumed its design in various forms and their activity resulted in the law of attraction and repulsion. All forms would attract and repel each other in their evolutionary dance.

All things are a part of God and an expression of God's thought. The Mind of God was the force which propelled and perpetuated these thoughts. All minds, as thoughts of God, do everything God imagined. Everything that came into being is an aspect of the One Mind.

The souls of individuals were created for companionship with God (the Whole). The pattern that God used to create souls was the pattern of God's own Spirit. The spirit is life. From the spirit, the mind builds patterns. From the mind, the physical creation is the result. This is how the spirit, the mind, and individuality, became the pattern for souls. This is how cause, action, and effect became the pattern for everything. First there was the spirit (the first cause); then there was the action which withdrew spirit into itself; then there was the resulting individuality of God.

The spirit of the individual existed before their soul was created. The spirit keeps the knowledge of its identity with God. The soul has the ability to experience the activities of the mind in a manner separate from God.

Thus, new individuals issued from God and remained dependent upon God; but individuals were also aware of an existence apart from God. Individuals were given the power to choose and direct their own activity. Without free will, it would only remain a part of the individuality of God. The mind, issuing as a force from God, would naturally fulfill God's thoughts, unless directed otherwise. The power to do this - to direct the force of mind individually from God - is free will. And the record or memory of this freedom is the soul. The soul began with its first expression of free will  through the force of mind. The first thought that the spirit generated of free will (i.e., the first diversion of the force of mind from its normal path of unity with God) was the beginning of the soul.

The nucleus of the soul was the balance of positive and negative forces that are equal in power. These forces produce harmonious activities: the positive initiating, impregnating, and thrusting forward; the negative receiving, nourishing, and ejecting. The steps of this evolutionary process are also the stages of the thought process: perception, reflection, and opinion.

Thus, the soul consists of two states of consciousness: (1) the spirit which bears a knowledge of its identity with God, and (2) the soul which bears a knowledge of everything it experienced.

The plan for the soul
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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #110 on: November 20, 2011, 08:35:15 PM »
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbewGohciYw
Spontaneous DNA, The Rapture, and The Rise to Fourth Density

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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #111 on: December 28, 2011, 08:11:13 PM »
http://www.sacred-texts.com/atl/dtp/dtp08.htm

CHAPTER IV
"AXTE INCAL, AXTUCE MUN"
In their consideration of natural laws, the philosophers of Poseid had come to the conclusive hypothesis and working theory that the material universe was not a complex entity but in its primality extremely simple. The glorious truth, "Incal malixetho," was clear to them, that is, that "Incal (God) is immanent in Nature." To this they appended, "Axte Incal, axtuce mun," "To know God is to know all

p. 61

worlds whatever." After centuries of experimentations, recording of phenomena, deductions, analyzing and synthetizing, these students had arrived at the final proposition that the universe--not here dwelling on their wondrous astronomical knowledge--was, with all its varied phenomena, created and continuously kept in operation by two primal force-principles. Briefly stated, these basic facts were that matter and dynamic energy (which were Incal made externally manifest) could readily account for all things else. This conception held that only One Substance existed and but One Energy, the one being Incal externalized and the other His Life in action in His Body. 1 This One Substance assumed many forms under the action of variant degrees of dynamic force. Because it was the basic principle of all natural and a psychic, but not of spiritual, phenomena, allow here a postulate with which not a few of my friends will find themselves at least partially familiar, perhaps wholly so. Commencing with dynamic energy as first sensibly manifest in the example furnished by simple vibration, the Poseid position may be outlined as follows: A very low rate of vibration may be felt; an increase of rate heard. For example, first we feel the pulsing of a harp-string, and then if the rate of vibration be increased we hear its sound. But substances of other sorts, able to endure greater vibratory impulses, manifest under more intense action, following sound, first heat, then light. Now again, light varies in color. The first color produced is red, and thence, by a constantly augmenting vibratile energy, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet, each spectrum-band being due to an exact and definite increase in the number of the vibrations. Succeeding the violet, further augmentation gives pure white, more gives a gray, then more extinguishes light, replacing it with


p. 62

electricity, and so on through an ever-increasing voltage until the realm of vital or psychic force is attained. This may truly be regarded as going inward from those manifestations of nature, of Incal or God, or the Creator, which are external; as going toward the internal from externality. A very brief study will show thee that the laws of the physical world continue inward to their spiritual source; that they are, truly, but prolongations the one of the other. But, ere entering into the realm of vibration, whose doorkeeper is sound, we find that the One Substance vibrates in variant, but definite, dynamic degree, and that thence arise each and all of the diverse forms of matter; in short, the difference between any given substances, as gold and silver, iron and lead, sugar and sand, is not one of matter, but of dynamic degree solely. Do I weary thee, my friend? Bear yet a little longer, I pray thee, for it is an important matter. In this dynamic affection the degree is no loose limitation, for if the vibratile rate be a shade variant, lower or higher than in any special material which may be under notice, the variation will be different in appearance and in its chemical nature; thus to proper substantial entities definite if enormous vibrations per second may be imparted, and the resulting substance (for light is substantial) is, say, red light, 1 but if one-eighth greater it will be orange, and if more or less, then the resultant must inevitably be a reddish orange, or a yellowish, respectively. It thus appears that certain definite degrees exist as plainly as mileposts, and that these major degrees are absolute. In other words, the One Substance is not as readily kept between these greater definitions as upon them, a fact which explains the tendency of composites, or intermediate affections, to decompose into the


p. 63

definite or simple elements; chemical compounds are not as stable as chemical primaries. The modern "wave theory," that sound, heat, light and correlatives are but forms of force, is only half correct; they are this, but they are more also. They are, in brief, affections of the One Substance by specific degrees of the One Energy, and except that the rate of this affection is vastly greater in the case of electricity than in that of lead or gold, there is no difference between these widely diverse appearing things. This is the energy by the Rosicrucians named "Fire," that which gives entrance to that. mysterious realm of nature penetrated only by the adept thaumaturgist, magician. Call these students it whose will all nature bends obedient, by whatever name best, please, thee, only bearing ever in mind that the real Magian never speaks of self or works, and is not known by his fellows to be what he is, save an accident hath revealed the secret. To this membership belonged He at whose command the winds and the waves were stayed on tempestuous Galilee. But He spoke not of Himself. Of that sublime brotherhood I will relate much ere long. No better proof is needed that all the variant manifestations are but variants of the odic force, the Rosicrucian "Fire," than this: offer resistance to an electric current, thereby reducing or diverting it against an opposing force, and thou hast light; oppose to this (are) light a combustible obstruction, and flame results. So mightest thou go on to the discovery soon to be made by the world of science, that light, all light, of the sun, or from any source, can he made to yield sound; upon this discovery hinge some of the most astounding inventions that thine age hath even dreamed of in its visions. But the primal discovery in this wonderful link, first of the sequence, will be the greatest of all, and so heralded. And this will be warranted, for the fact that it will be but a reincarnate unfoldment will not diminish its importance to mankind, nor the credit of its rediscoverer. In brief, the truths of our Father's Kingdom are eternal; have ever been, will ever be existent, and only the discoverers themselves will be new to the fact. The fact not being a new one in itself, nor new even to the

p. 64

world, but only to this age of it. Poseid knew that light gives out sound when correctly resisted. It knew that magnetism gives rise to electricity in the same manner and for the same reason. Thus, the loadstone exhibits magnetism; revolve it in the field of a dynamo and so cut the current and pile it upon itself, so to speak, and electricity develops. So, resist this and light appears; this, and heat comes; again resisted properly, and sound results, then next energy appears as pulsing motion. But these various processes may be "short-circuited" and all of the intermediate phenomena cut out.

Have I been wearisome in this discourse? If so, and I suspect that I have, the reward is at hand.

The Poseidi found that in the realm beyond magnetism were yet other forces, superior and more intense of pulsation, forces operated by the mind. And Mind is of our Father, and is the constantly creating source of all things whatsoever. Were the perpetual vis a tergo of divine creation to cease for one instant, in that instant the Universe would cease to exist. Now wilt thou see the sublime beauty of the Atlan postulate not long since repeated: "Incal malixetho. Axte Incal, axtuce mun." For down from His heights, marking the descent by "forcefalls" as a river marks declivities fin its bed by cataracts, comes this supreme power; comes far, oh! very far, adown its course to the cascades of magnetism, electricity, light, heat, sound, motion--and far off where the bed of this Divine stream becomes nearly level, exhibits those little ripples of material differentiation which thou termest chemical elements, insisting on there being sixty-three, when there is but One. From this knowledge came all the wondrous triumphs of that old age, and one by one they are emerging to-day after their long oblivion, till to-morrow they shall awake in crowds, and press to rediscovery by threes and fours, and then by platoons and companies and legions, till all the treasures of Poseid shall be again on earth, in air, and sea. O, bright to-morrow of time, and fortunate thou who shalt open thine eyes upon it and its marvels. And yet, although so fortunate, still shalt thou find it well behooves thee to temper all things by the spirit, and

p. 65

not to let the match of physical discovery outstrip the advance of the soul. O, sad shall be found any day wherein man approacheth the arcane treasury of his Father from the side of the blind physical eye; for if by this the whole world shall be gained, what shall it profit if it lose the soul?

Having thus acquired insight into a new realm, if it be new to thee, let me ask, and answer thou me: How explainest thou these two great phenomena, heat and light? They are not easy to explain; cold and darkness are not merely the absence of heat and light.

Having given the basis thereof, now will I show a new philosophy:

I have said that the Atlans recognized Nature in its entirety to be Deity externalized. Their philosophy asserted that force moved, not in straight fines but in circles, that is, so as always to return into itself. If the dynamism operating the universe acts in circular progression, it follows that an infinity of increase in vibration possible to One Substance would be an untenable concept. There must be a point in the circle where extremes meet and run the round again, and this we find between cathodicity and magnetism. As vibration brought substance into the realm of light, it must carry it out. It does so. It conveys it into what the Poseidi termed "Navaz, the Night-Side of Nature," where duality becomes manifest, cold opposing heat, darkness light, and where positive polarity opposes negative, all things antipodal. Cold is as much a substantial entity as heat, and darkness as light. There is a prism of seven colors in each white ray of light; there is also a septuple prism of black entities in the blackest gloom--the night is as pregnant as the day.

The Poseid investigator thus became cognizant of wondrous forces of nature which he might bend to the uses of mankind. The secret was out, the discovery being that attraction of gravitation, the law of weight, had set over against it the "repulsion by levitation"; that the first belonged to the Light-Side of Nature, and the second to Navaz, the Night-Side; that vibration governed the darkness and the cold. Thus Poseid,

p. 66

like Job of old, knew the path to the. house of darkness, and the treasures of the hail (cold). Through this wisdom Atlantis found it possible to adjust weight (positiveness) to lack of weight (negativeness) so evenly that no "tug of war" was manifest. This achievement meant much. It meant aerial navigation without wings or unwieldy gas-reservoirs, through taking advantage of repulsion by levitation opposed in overmatching strength to the attraction of gravitation. That vibration of the One Substance governed and composed all realms was a discovery which solved the problem of the conveyance of images of light, pictures of forms, as well as of sound and heat, just as the telephone thou knowest so well conveys images of sound, only In Poseid no wires or other sensible material connection was required in the use, at whatever distance, of either telephones or telephotes, nor even in caloriveyance, that is, heat-conduction.

To digress a little, it is to the employment of these and the higher forces of the night-side that seemingly magic feats of occult adepts, from the Man of Nazareth down to the least Yogi, are indebted for their possibility.

And now, let me close this chapter by saying that when modern science shall have seen its way to the acceptance of the Poseidonic knowledge herein outlined, physical nature will no longer posses any hidden recess, any penetralia, for the scientific investigator. Not earth, air, the depth of the seas nor those of interstellar space will hold secrets from that man who approaches from the Godward side, as did Poseid. I do not say that Atl knew the very all; it knew more than this day has yet uncovered, but not all. Yet, the search commenced then by them might be continued now by thee, for America, my people, thou wert of Atlantis. Of either, I can sing, "My country, 'tis of thee."


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Footnotes
61:1 NOTE--As, in its outgoing impulse the Created draws away from the Creator it looks back to its origin and notes its progression-marks, that is, its multiplied realizations of its increasing separation from its Source. The greater this separateness, the greater the field (Matter) wherein these points appear, because the divine element in the Created has noted more points, or in other things, more material objects as being between it and its source. Only when we look back at these things we have sensed these thought-forms of God, do we perceive matter, for when we look forward to reunion with Him, matter disappears, giving place to Spirit.

62:1 NOTE--Redlight is stated to occur at 395,000,000,000,000 vibrations of that "ether" which by Phylos is termed the last form of matter below where matter ceases and mind begins. And the highest visible light vibration is placed at 790,000,000,000,000. So says science. But Phylos says: "Vastly higher than the high purple range where light ceases ordinarily to be visible, the One Substance again vibrates visibly. As a synchronous harp-string that responds to key of low C, for example, struck on another harp, will also respond to every C in the whole register, be it low, or middle or high, so the One Substance responds at 831,000,000,000,000; at, again, the next octave of vibration, and again at the next, where it becomes visible as the fatal Unfed Light, called in Atla the "Maxin," and again, by the Tchin as the "Vis Mortuus."

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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #112 on: January 04, 2012, 11:26:12 PM »
Kepler’s surprise: The sounds of the stars
Data from NASA's Kepler space telescope have revolutionized the search for planets outside the Solar System — and are now doing the same for asteroseismology.

Ron Cowen1 04 January 2012
 
Most astronomers gaze at the heavens and see stars. William Chaplin hears an orchestra — a celestial symphony in which the smallest stars are flutes, the medium-sized ones are trombones and the giants are reverberating tubas.

The sounds are internal vibrations that reveal themselves as a subtle, rhythmic brightening and dimming of a star, explains Chaplin, an astrophysicist at the University of Birmingham, UK, and a specialist in asteroseismology. These waves provide information that astronomers can't get in any other way: triggered by the turbulent rise and fall of hot gases on the star's surface, the vibrations penetrate deep into the stellar interior and become resonating tones that reveal the star's size, composition and mass (see 'Celestial music'). So by watching for the characteristic fluctuations in brightness, says Chaplin, “we can literally build up a picture of what the inside of a star looks like”.

Better still, he adds, asteroseismologists are now hauling in the data wholesale. After years of being hampered by Earth's turbulent atmosphere, which obscures the view of the Universe and has limited asteroseismology to about 20 of the brightest nearby stars, researchers have been astonished by the trove of information coming from a new generation of space observatories. Thanks to the French-led Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits (COROT) space telescope, launched in 2006, and NASA's Kepler space telescope, launched in 2009, they can now listen in on hundreds of stars at a time.


 
Expand“We are in a golden age for the study of stellar structure and evolution,” says Hans Kjeldsen, an astronomer at Aarhus University in Denmark.

“Nature seems to have been kind to us,” agrees Ronald Gilliland, an astronomer at Pennsylvania State University in University Park. “The stars seem not to be shy about showing us lots of oscillations that will allow us to reveal their innermost secrets.” The flood of data has shed light on the interior of red-giant stars, and forced astronomers to question their understanding of how stars and galaxies form.

Stellar serendipity
Asteroseismology isn't the main mission of either COROT or Kepler: they are intended to hunt for planets outside the Solar System (exoplanets) that have roughly the size and orbital radius of Earth. But because they both look for the tiny dip in brightness caused when a planet transits, or passes in front of, its parent star, they both have to record a drop in stellar brightness of no more than 1 part in 1,000. And that, in theory, makes them able to detect the effects of the stellar sound waves.

Before launch, no one could say whether the satellites would make good on this. Kepler's exoplanet search has, in fact, been hindered by stellar oscillations that obscure transits, but are caused by magnetic activity1, so are unrelated to sound waves. Acoustic oscillations and transits don't interfere with each other: sound waves cause the brightness of Sun-like stars to vary on time scales of 5–15 minutes, whereas planetary transits last for hours. So the planners for both COROT and Kepler were happy to include asteroseismologists in their mission teams. “We are riding on the back of the planet hunters,” says Douglas Gough, an asteroseismologist at the University of Cambridge, UK.

As it turned out, the sound-wave data came down in an avalanche — especially from Kepler, which has a 0.95-metre-aperture telescope — nine times the sensitivity of COROT's — plus the ability to look at a larger group of stars for a longer period of time than COROT.

“Everything came together marvellously well,” says Gilliland.

Last April, Chaplin and his colleagues published their analysis2 of acoustic oscillations observed by Kepler in 500 Sun-like stars. The frequency and amplitude of the oscillations revealed that the stars have roughly the sizes predicted by established theories of astrophysics, but the distribution of their masses turned out to be significantly lower than expected.

Chaplin isn't yet sure what to make of these findings. But if further observations of the same stars continue to show masses lower than estimated, theorists may have to rethink models of star formation and galaxy assembly. “We didn't have a way of testing these models until we began doing the asteroseismology with Kepler,” says Chaplin. And getting them right is crucial: not only do stellar masses not only underlie theories of galaxy formation, but they are also essential for understanding how thermonuclear reactions in stars have produced heavy elements throughout the history of the galaxy — heavy elements that eventually formed planets including Earth.

“This is amazing to witness,” says Kjeldsen. With the latest data, he adds “we can test our assumptions, ideas, theories and models in great detail. And we can correct all our errors too.”

Secrets of the giants
Some of Kepler's biggest surprises have been in its sounding out of red giants. These are Sun-like stars that have exhausted the hydrogen at their cores, causing a fuel crisis that paradoxically leads them to swell up to more than 100 times their original diameters. In about 5 billion years' time, for example, the Sun will become a red giant big enough devour the innermost planets of the Solar System.

Astronomers would like to be able to distinguish between two phases of red-giant evolution: an early stage, in which the giant is still fuelled by hydrogen in a thin shell around a dense core only a few times bigger than Earth; and a later stage, in which the star has begun burning the helium at its core. Knowing the difference would help them to determine the red giants' ages, how quickly they evolve and the amount of gas and heavy elements that they shed into interstellar space during each phase.

That was impossible until Kepler: from the outside, a red giant looks the same regardless of what it is burning. But last March, Timothy Bedding, an astronomer at the University of Sydney in Australia, and his colleagues reported3 that Kepler oscillation data allowed for a clear distinction.

“It's difficult not to be fascinated by an ability to learn about the properties of the tiny core of these huge stars from oscillations on their surface,” says Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, an astronomer at Aarhus University and a co-author of the study.

Going further, the same researchers reported in December4 that they had measured the rotation rate of the core region of a red giant for the first time, and discovered that it whips around about ten times faster than the surface.

This finding confirms the standard model of red-giant formation — Sun-like stars flinging their shallower layers outwards while their cores contract. Basic physics demands that angular momentum is conserved, so the outer layers must slow their rotation and the contracting core must speed up, just as observed.

Mission not yet accomplished
Many astronomers have called for an extension to Kepler's mission, which is currently slated to end in November. It is unclear whether NASA will be able to heed them; funding is tight, and other missions need money, too. But asteroseismologists are helping to make the case. They point out, for example, that acoustic oscillations in the Sun shift their frequency ever so slightly — a change of about 1 part in 10,000 — over the course of the Sun's 11-year magnetic cycle. The shift provides a new way to measure the length of the cycle, in which changes in the Sun's magnetic field drive sunspots, flares and other fluctuations in energy that can wreak havoc on Earth's satellites and communication systems.

Astronomers would now like to compare the Sun's magnetic-activity cycle with those of a slew of similar stars. If the other stars have cycles extending over many years, says Gilliland, Kepler's baseline mission will not be able to track them. “But with observations extending to 7–8 years, or even more — the spacecraft seems good to allow 11 — we will be able to probe many stellar activity cycles. It would be profoundly more powerful,” he adds.

An extended mission could also allow astronomers to learn more about a different class of oscillation that originates deep in a red giant's core, and could tell them a great deal about the core's structure and density. These oscillations have a very small amplitude by the time they make their presence known at the surface, but their reverberations are persistent, like those of a heavy bell, lasting for months or years. “We've just begun to wring the interesting astrophysics out of these results,” says Gilliland, and the ability to take data over many years would be an immense help.

Asteroseismology may even help in Kepler's primary mission of finding Earth-sized exoplanets orbiting in the habitable zone around their stars, notes Chaplin. Because the craft can detect an exoplanet only by the amount of light that it blocks as it passes in front of its host star, and can measure it only in relation to the host, the radius of a planet is known only as accurately as the radius of the star. But sound-wave oscillations recorded from the parent star can pin down its size very accurately5. Such measurements are possible for only the brightest of the stars in Kepler's field of view, but they could make a huge difference in the researchers' confidence in their data as they begin to report detection of planets approaching Earth's size6, 7.

Johannes Kepler, the seventeenth-century astronomer after whom the spacecraft was named, theorized that Earth and all the other known planets made their own sounds — an arrangement that he called the music of the spheres. It would be only fitting if celestial music, of a kind, had a key role in the Kepler space telescope's most prized discovery.
 Journal name:
Nature
Volume:
481,
Pages:
18–19
Date published:
(05 January 2012)
DOI:
doi:10.1038/481018a
References
1.Cowen, R. Nature 477, 142–143 (2011).

ArticlePubMedISIChemPortShow context
2.Chaplin, W. J. et al. Science 332, 213–216 (2011).

ArticlePubMedISIChemPortShow context
3.Bedding, T. R. et al. Nature 471, 608–611 (2011).

ArticlePubMedISIChemPortShow context
4.Beck, P. G. et al. Nature http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10612 (2011).

Show context
5.Howell, S. B. et al. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2165 (2011).

Show context
6.Hand, E. Nature 480, 302 (2011).

ArticlePubMedChemPortShow context
7.Fressin, F. et al. Nature http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10780 (2011).

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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #114 on: January 31, 2012, 07:30:26 PM »
http://wosco.org/index.shtml?script=news.pl&action=info&id_file=365
Strange sounds in sky explained by scientists
Mr. Khalilov, what is the nature of the unusual very low-pitched sounds reported by a great number of people in different parts of the planet since the summer of 2011? Many call them "The Sound of the Apocalypse". Information about that comes from all over the world: US, UK, Costa Rica, Russia, Czech Republic, Australia, etc.

We have analyzed records of these sounds and found that most of their spectrum lies within the infrasound range, i.e. is not audible to humans. What people hear is only a small fraction of the actual power of these sounds. They are low-frequency acoustic emissions in the range between 20 and 100 Hz modulated by ultra-low infrasonic waves from 0.1 to 15 Hz. In geophysics, they are called acoustic-gravity waves; they are formed in the upper atmosphere, at the atmosphere-ionosphere boundary in particular. There can be quite a lot of causes why those waves are generated: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, storms, tsunamis, etc. However, the scale of the observed humming sound in terms of both the area covered and its power far exceeds those that can be generated by the above-mentioned phenomena.

In that case, what could be causing this humming in the sky?
In our opinion, the source of such powerful and immense manifestation of acoustic-gravity waves must be very large-scale energy processes. These processes include powerful solar flares and huge energy flows generated by them, rushing towards Earth's surface and destabilizing the magnetosphere, ionosphere and upper atmosphere. Thus, the effects of powerful solar flares: the impact of shock waves in the solar wind, streams of corpuscles and bursts of electromagnetic radiation are the main causes of generation of acoustic-gravitation waves following increased solar activity.

Given the surge in solar activity as manifested itself in the higher number and energy of solar flares since mid-2011, we can assume that there is a high probability of impact of the substantial increase in solar activity on the generation of the unusual humming coming from the sky. It should be pointed out that solar activity began to rise sharply since early 2011, with its amplitude significantly higher than all forecasts given by a number of influential scientific institutions in 2010 and 2011. Meanwhile, the observed increase in solar activity is fully consistent with the forecast of the International Committee GEOCHANGE published in the Committee's Report in June 2010. If this growth rate of solar activity continues, its amplitude by the end of 2012 will be higher than the amplitude of 23rd solar cycle, and in 2013-2014 the solar activity will reach its peak the amplitude of which was predicted by us to be 1.5 - 1.7 times higher than the amplitude of the 23rd cycle.

But you said that the cause of the "sky hum" can lie within Earth's core as well, what does it mean?

There is one more possible cause of these sounds and it may lie at the Earth's core. The fact is that the acceleration of the drift of the Earth's north magnetic pole which increased more than fivefold between 1998 and 2003 and is at the same level today points to intensification of energy processes in the Earth's core, since it is processes in the inner and outer core that form the Earth's geomagnetic field. Meanwhile, as we have already reported, on November 15, 2011 all ATROPATENA geophysical stations which record three-dimensional variations of the Earth's gravitational field almost simultaneously registered a powerful gravitational impulse. The stations are deployed in Istanbul, Kiev, Baku, Islamabad and Yogyakarta, with the first and last one being separated by a distance of about 10,000 km. Such a phenomenon is only possible if the source of this emanation is at the Earth's core level. That huge energy release from the Earth's core at the end of the last year was some kind of a start signal indicating the transition of the Earth's internal energy into a new active phase.

Intensification of the energy processes in the Earth's core can modulate the geomagnetic field which, through a chain of physical processes at the ionosphere - atmosphere boundary level, generates acoustic-gravity waves the audible range of which has been heard by people in the form of a frightening low-frequency sound in different parts of our planet.
In both cases, even though the causes of acoustic-gravity waves are of a quite understandable geophysical nature, they are indicative of the expected significant increase in solar activity and the geodynamic activity of our planet. There is no doubt that processes in the core rule the internal energy of our planet, therefore, we should expect by the end of 2012 a sharp rise in strong earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and extreme weather events with peak levels in 2013 - 2014.
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Thank you for your answers.

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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #115 on: February 28, 2012, 01:27:07 PM »
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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #116 on: April 05, 2012, 01:59:59 AM »
Ancient sound waves sculpted galaxy formation
17:55 30 March 2012 by Anil Ananthaswamy
Magazine issue 2859.

The sky distribution of the BOSS massive galaxies (Image: Michael Blanton and the SDSS-III Collaboration)

Sound waves that rang out in the early universe sculpted its structure. The best measurement yet of their imprint on galaxies is a boon to dark-energy studies.

About 30,000 years after the big bang, matter collapsed around dense seeds of dark matter. Outward pressure from photons caused the collapsing matter to rebound, creating acoustic waves, like ripples in a pond. These ripples expanded until the universe cooled to a certain temperature, stalling the waves. More matter existed at the centres and edges of these ripples, and therefore should have led to more galaxies there.

This is exactly what the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) sees in a study of 265,000 galaxies. When the BOSS team measured the distance between pairs of galaxies between 4.5 billion and 6.3 billion light years from Earth, they found an excess of galaxy pairs separated by 500 million light years (arxiv.org/abs/1203.6594).

That is the expected radius of the sound waves – if the universe's expansion has been accelerated in line with the leading model of dark energy. Called the cosmological constant, the model suggests that the amount of energy in a given volume of space does not vary with time.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21653-ancient-sound-waves-sculpted-galaxy-formation.html
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Re: Booming sound waves heat up galaxy cluster
« Reply #117 on: October 03, 2012, 09:24:26 AM »

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http://www.livescience.com/23626-microbe-music-algae-songs.html



There's a springy, almost cheerful feel to the song called "Bloom." And "Far and Wide" sounds a bit unearthly.
 
Neither tune, however, can be credited to a human composer; they more rightly were written by microbes.
 
These pieces of music were created by transforming data from blue-green algae into musical notes. The songs were a way for scientists to look for patterns in readings from microbial samples collected in the western English Channel.
 
"This was an attempt to approach a dataset in a different way," said Peter Larsen, a computational biologist at Illinois' Argonne National Laboratory. [Listen: Algae Songs]
 
Larsen and his colleagues created different compositions to represent different aspects of their data. For example, the tune "Bloom" illustrates how some algae species bloom occasionally, becoming much more abundant for short periods of time.
 
"The melody is the abundance of microbial species — low notes correspond to lower abundances, and high notes correspond to higher abundances," Larsen told LiveScience. "Chord progression is taken from physical parameters — day length, chlorophyll concentration in the water. When we combine those two, we select a note in the chosen octave that is in harmony with the chord that associates with the physical parameters."
 
Another song called "Blues for Elle" highlights seasonal changes in the algae population, mapping notes to parameters such as temperature and concentrations of chemicals that affect the abundance of algae.
 
Larsen said the musical results in these songs were indeed useful to illuminate connections between parameters and to make sense of large sets of data. Plus, they don't sound half bad.
 
"It's a pleasant surprise that you get music-like responses from the data," Larsen said. "The patterns that exist in seasonal variation in microbial communities lent themselves very nicely to music-like patterns."
 
Still, Larsen, who describes himself as an "armchair fan of jazz" with no musical training, said his bebop-inspired creations aren't quite ready for the Grammys.
 
"Clearly, they're not great art, but it's fun to see that we've found an element that really seems to intrigue people about combining scientific data with musical compositions," he said.
 
The same algorithm used on the algae could also be used to convert a wide variety of datasets into musical form. Already, the researchers have applied it to measurements of the symbiosis between soil bacteria and plants.
 
This project isn't the first time scientists have created compositions from measurements. Astronomers converted star data from NASA's Kepler telescope into reggae songs, and readings from the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator were used to create a musical piece about the Higgs boson particle.
 
Larsen said an added benefit of turning his data into music is its ability to reach people who gravitate more toward art than science.
 
"These systems are inherently beautiful and I have always seen that beauty in these systems," he said.
 "The fun part is to try to take some of that and express it to people who are less familiar with microbial ecology."
 
Follow Clara Moskowitz on Twitter @ClaraMoskowitz or LiveScience @livescience. We're also on Facebook & Google+.




http://www.livescience.com/23626-microbe-music-algae-songs.html
Cyanobacteria, also referred to as blue-green algae (above), are abundant in the English Channel and represent an instrument in "microbial bebop," music created using data from microbes collected in the Channel.
CREDIT: Specious Reasons
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There's a springy, almost cheerful feel to the song called "Bloom." And "Far and Wide" sounds a bit unearthly.
 
Neither tune, however, can be credited to a human composer; they more rightly were written by microbes.
 
These pieces of music were created by transforming data from blue-green algae into musical notes. The songs were a way for scientists to look for patterns in readings from microbial samples collected in the western English Channel.
 
"This was an attempt to approach a dataset in a different way," said Peter Larsen, a computational biologist at Illinois' Argonne National Laboratory. [Listen: Algae Songs]
 
Larsen and his colleagues created different compositions to represent different aspects of their data. For example, the tune "Bloom" illustrates how some algae species bloom occasionally, becoming much more abundant for short periods of time.
 
"The melody is the abundance of microbial species — low notes correspond to lower abundances, and high notes correspond to higher abundances," Larsen told LiveScience. "Chord progression is taken from physical parameters — day length, chlorophyll concentration in the water. When we combine those two, we select a note in the chosen octave that is in harmony with the chord that associates with the physical parameters."
 
Another song called "Blues for Elle" highlights seasonal changes in the algae population, mapping notes to parameters such as temperature and concentrations of chemicals that affect the abundance of algae.
 
Larsen said the musical results in these songs were indeed useful to illuminate connections between parameters and to make sense of large sets of data. Plus, they don't sound half bad.
 
"It's a pleasant surprise that you get music-like responses from the data," Larsen said. "The patterns that exist in seasonal variation in microbial communities lent themselves very nicely to music-like patterns."
 
Still, Larsen, who describes himself as an "armchair fan of jazz" with no musical training, said his bebop-inspired creations aren't quite ready for the Grammys.
 
"Clearly, they're not great art, but it's fun to see that we've found an element that really seems to intrigue people about combining scientific data with musical compositions," he said.
 
The same algorithm used on the algae could also be used to convert a wide variety of datasets into musical form. Already, the researchers have applied it to measurements of the symbiosis between soil bacteria and plants.
 
This project isn't the first time scientists have created compositions from measurements. Astronomers converted star data from NASA's Kepler telescope into reggae songs, and readings from the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator were used to create a musical piece about the Higgs boson particle.
 
Larsen said an added benefit of turning his data into music is its ability to reach people who gravitate more toward art than science.
 
"These systems are inherently beautiful and I have always seen that beauty in these systems," he said.
 "The fun part is to try to take some of that and express it to people who are less familiar with microbial ecology."
 
Follow Clara Moskowitz on Twitter @ClaraMoskowitz or LiveScience @livescience. We're also on Facebook & Google+.




http://www.livescience.com/23626-microbe-music-algae-songs.html
Cyanobacteria, also referred to as blue-green algae (above), are abundant in the English Channel and represent an instrument in "microbial bebop," music created using data from microbes collected in the Channel.
CREDIT: Specious Reasons
 :smoke:
Never
invite a Yoda
to a frog leg dinner.
a Wookieism

Go ahead
invite Yoda
to a Frog leg dinner